The Posteroanterior and Lateral Chest Radiograph
The simplest conventional study of the chest is a posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph taken in a radiographic unit specially designed for these studies. The x-rays travel through the patient and expose a receptor from which the image is recorded. Most commonly, the receptor is an intensifying screen and radiographic film, but several types of digital radiographic receptors are in use as well. Two of these types receptors are computed radiography and large field-of-view image intensifiers. The digital images may be printed on film by laser printers or viewed on monitors. The two views of a chest radiograph are taken in projections at 90 degrees to each other with the patient's breath held at the end of a maximum inspiration. The first view is obtained as the patient faces the film cassette with the x-ray beam source positioned 6 feet behind the patient. Because the x-ray beam travels in a posterior-to-anterior direction, this view is called a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph. Another view is then obtained with the patient turned 90 degrees, with the left side against the film cassette and arms overhead. The x-ray beam travels from right to left through the patient and this is called a left lateral view.
Posteroanterior chest radiographs. Key to labels in FigS Above: a=aorta, aer=azygoesophageal recess, ajl=anterior junction line, apw=aortopulmonary window, bi=bronchus intermedius, ca=carina, cap=cardiophrenic angle, cpa=costophrenic angle, cl=clavicle, d=diaphragm, dp=descending (or interlobar) pulmonary artery, g=gastric air bubble, ivc=inferior vena cava, L=liver, la=left atrium, lpa=left pulmonary artery, lul=left upper lobe bronchus, lv=left ventricle, m=manubrium, mf=minor fissure, MF=major fissure, p=main pulmonary artery, pjl=posterior junction line, rpa=right pulmonary artery, rts=right tracheal (or paratracheal) stripe, rul=right upper lobe bronchus, rv=right ventricle, s=scapula, sf=splenic flexure of colon, sp=spleen, svc=superior vena cava, t=trachea, and v=vertebral body.
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Normal chest x ray (Techniques Conventional Radiography)
4/ 5Oleh Habifa