LEARN TO READ A CHEST X RAY VERY EASY

This video tutorial from youtube about read chest x ray in 5 minutes
HOW TO READ CHEST X RAY, This video Very well done, succinct and high yield. I'd like to offer an alternative mnemonic to make sure you do not miss anything. With greater practice I'm sure this becomes pretty automatic, but as a student / junior doctor it's helpful for sure:
 A - Assessment of quality + airways
B - Bones
C - Cardiac silhouette+size
D - Diaphragms
E - Effusion
F - (lung) Fields
G - Great vessels
H - Hila + mediastinum
I - Impression, overall assessment It's the best chest X-ray illustration video I had ever seen.

HOW TO READ CHEST X RAY
CHEST X RAY INTERPRETATION

Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings

Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings :cranial nerves that traverse from the
brain or brainstem through the foramina of the skull base, which are involved in motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. (rsna.org)



Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encoun- tered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cra- nial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormali- ties, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed mag- netic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imag- ing protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging.

RADIOLOGY JOURNAL PDF "Appearance of Normal Cranial Nerves on Steady-State Free Precession MR Images"


Radiology Jounal PDF,  RSNA, 2009 radiographics.rsnajnls.org  
As radiologic imaging technology improves and more intricate details of the anatomy can be evaluated, images provide more precise diagnostic information and allow better localization of abnormalities. Forexample, standard T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences adequately depicted only the larger cranial nerves, whereas current steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of all 12 cranial nerves. SSFP sequences provide submillimetric spatial resolution and high contrast resolution between cerebrospinal fluid and solid structures, allowing the reconstruction of elegant multiplanar images that highlight the course of each nerve. These sequences have become a mainstay in the evaluation of the cerebellopontine angles and inner ear. Usually referred to by their trade names or acronyms (eg, constructive interference steady state, or CISS, and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition, or FIESTA), SSFP sequences allow precise differentiation between branches of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, accurate detection of small masses in the cerebellopontine angles and internal auditory canals, and detailed evaluation of endolymph and perilymph within the inner ear. To take full advantage of these imaging sequences, radiologists must be familiar with the appearances of similar anatomic details of all 12 cranial nerves on SSFP MR images.

Identify the expected course of each of the 12 cranial nerves.Differentiate cranial nerves from other curvilinear structures visible on high-resolution MR images.Describe pitfalls in the diagnosis of cranial nerve abnormalities. 



Abdominal Calcifications plain x ray

Abnormal structures that contain calcium
Calcium indicates pathology
● Pancreas
● Renal parenchymal tissue (see image 2)
● Blood vessels and vascular
aneurysms
● Gallbladder fibroids (leiomyoma) (see images3)
image2

image 3

Hemangioma in vertebral body X-ray

Benign, slow-growing tumor composed of vascular channels. Usually asymptomatic and identified in middle-aged patients. The coarse vertical trabecular pattern may extend into the pedicles and laminae. Soft-tissue and intraspinal extension of the tumor or secondary hemorrhage can produce a paraspinal mass.

It is one of these lytic lesions that appeares in X-ray of vertebral body and shows demineralized and occasionally expanded vertebral body with characteristic multiple coarse linear striations running vertically.

 Hemangioma of a vertebral body. Multiple coarse, linear striations run vertically in the demineralized vertebral body.

Neurogenic neoplasm in X-rays

Posterior mediastinal mass that sharply circumscribed, round or oval homogeneous mass that is usually unilateral and paravertebral.

Primarily neurofibromas and neurolemmomas in adults, ganglioneuromas and neuroblastomas in children. Chemodectomas (any mediastinal compartment) and pheochromocytomas are extremely rare. There may be associated rib or vertebral erosion, calcification, and a dumbbell appearance (part of the tumor is inside and part outside the spinal canal).
Neurogenic tumor. (A) Frontal and (B) lateral views of the chest demonstrate a large right posterior mediastinal mass.

Consolidation Of Chest X Ray Images

Helo...are you fine this today..
Permit i will share about chest x ray in consolidation images of chest x ray, please see this image below..
this image clear view left side, in below..
and, this image upper..


Apk For Cardiac CT Technique

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permit i m wil share about aplication for android for cardiac ct technique, the source im take from philips healthcare..please read the review..
Free apk
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Diagram of Anterior anatomical relations of both kidneys

The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs that are located in the perirenal retroperitoneal space with a longitudinal diameter of 10–12 cm and a latero-lateral diameter of 3–5 cm and a weight of 250–270 g.
In the supine position, the medial border of the normal kidney is much more anterior than the lateral border, The upper pole of each kidney is situated more posteriorly than the lower pole.
The right kidney,  anteriorly :
has a relation with the inferior surface of the liver with peritoneal interposition,and with the second portion of the duodenum without any peritoneal interposition since the second portion of the duodenum is retroperitoneal .
The left kidney, anteriorly :
has a relation with the pancreatic tail, the spleen, the stomach, the ligament of Treitz and small bowel, and with the left colic lexure and left colon . Over the left kidney, there are two important peritoneal relections, one vertical corresponding to the spleno-renal ligament (connected to
the gastro-diaphragmatic and gastrosplenic ligaments) and one horizontal corresponding to the transverse mesocolon.

Amazing!! Free Aplication for android Radiographic Positioning and related anatomy

Permit share about aplication for android, the Radiographic Positioning And Related Anatomy

1 Basic Principles of Radiography and Digital Technology
2 The Upper Limb
3 The Shoulder
4 The Lower Limb
5 The Hip, Pelvis and Sacro-iliac Joints
6 The Vertebral Column
7 The Thorax and Upper Airways
8 The Skull
9 The Facial Bones and Sinuses
10 Dental Radiography
11 The Abdomen and Pelvic Cavity
12 Ward Radiography
13 Theatre Radiography
14 Paediatric Radiography
15 Mammography

This directlink playstore to get this aplication




What is the most appropriate interpretation of this CT Scan?

what do you think of the axial image ct scan below ..? please answer the comments below, may be useful

choose the most appropriate:
a. Ependymome
b. Medulloblastoma
c. Subependymoma, Medulloblastoma with obstr hydrocephalus

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