Philips rolling out COVID ‘imaging cabins’ in Philiphina

source : https://www.radiologybusiness.com/
The picture above is the design of Philips, in order to minimize the risk of Covid-19 exposure to medical staff.

The elegant appearance, can be installed outside the hospital, so that it can facilitate the flow of the patient.

In my opinion, that the above room is very suitable in design adjacent to the emergency room. What do you think.?

Philips mencatat bahwa wadah coronavirus bekerja dengan beberapa penawaran CT dan x-ray dan juga dapat dihubungkan dengan infrastruktur TI rumah sakit untuk ahli radiologi untuk membaca gambar dari jarak jauh.

Saat ini mereka hanya tersedia di Filipina tanpa rencana segera untuk distribusi yang lebih luas di pasar lain, seorang juru bicara perusahaan mengatakan kepada Radiology Business.

Source content : /www.radiologybusiness.com/

Quiz Online Radiology for Shoilder Joint cases

1. What is this case, ?

a. Clavicle fractures (A) are often described by location, with the clavicle divided into thirds: proximal, middle, or distal. Note the scapular fracture (B) as well.
b. Clavicle fissure (A) are often described by location, with the clavicle divided into thirds: medial, middle, or distal. Note the scapular dislocation (B) as well.
c. Clavicle fracture complete (A) are often described by location, with the clavicle divided into thirds: medial, middle, or distal. Note the scapular fracture (B) as well.
d. Clavicle fracture (A) are often described by location, with the clavicle divided into thirds: medial, middle, or distal. Note the scapular subluxaxion (B) as well.

2. What is this diagnosis..?


a. The small majority of shoulder dislocations are anterior, and the large majority of anterior dislocations are subcoracoid, as demonstrated in this AP view.
b. The large majority of shoulder dislocations are posterior, and the samall of anterior dislocations are subcoracoid, as demonstrated in this AP view.
c.  The large majority of shoulder subluxaxion  are anterior, and the large majority of anterior dislocations are subcoracoid, as demonstrated in this AP view.
d. The large majority of shoulder dislocations are anterior, and the large majority of anterior dislocations are subcoracoid, as demonstrated in this AP view.

3. What is this diagnosis ?

a. Posterior shoulder subluxaxion is uncommon and is difficult to diagnose on a single AP radiograph.
b. Posterior shoulder dislocation is uncommon and is difficult to diagnose on a single AP radiograph. 
c. Posterior shoulder fracture is uncommon and is difficult to diagnose on a single AP radiograph. 
d. Posterior shoulder dislocation is uncommon and is difficult to diagnose on a single Oblique  radiograph.

4. Whats is this diagnosis.?


a. Posterior shoulder dislocation is clearly 
b. Dislocation shoulder
c. Fracture shoulder
d. Subluxaxion shoulder

5. What is this diagnosis
a. Shoulder subluxaxion in which the humeral head is displaced inferiorly while the arm is in an abducted or overhead position. 
b. Shoulder fracture in which the humeral head is displaced inferiorly while the arm is in an abducted or overhead position. 
c. Shoulder dislocations in which the humeral head is displaced inferiorly while the arm is in an abducted or overhead position.
d. Shoulder fisure in which the humeral head is displaced inferiorly while the arm is in an abducted or overhead position.
 

6. What is this diagnosis.?


a. Lage dislocation of the inferior rim of the glenoid
b. Lage Fracture of the posterior  rim of the glenoid
c. small dislocation of the superior rim of the glenoid
d. small avulsion of the inferior rim of the glenoid

7. What is diagnosis ?



a. Compression fracture of the superolateral
b. Fisure of the superolateral
c. Dislocation of shoul der
d. Subluxaxion of shoulder

8. What is your diagnosis ?




a. Humeral head fractureand 
b. Subluxaxion of shoulder
c. Fractur small
d. Fissure of shoulder 



Online Radiology Quiz

Online radiology quiz 2020

1. What do you think of this radiological picture ...?



2. Make up the right angle for checking serendipity view
a. 90
b. 65
c. 20
d. 35
e. 40

3. This knee MRI, what is your interpretation?


a. Mass
b. Fluid and Blood
c. Trauma
d. Normal
e. Lipohemarthrosis

4. This knee MRI, what is your interpretation?



New APP For Android About CT Scan Technique

Greetings radiology friends
Please allow me to post about the application for android with the title CT Scan Technique, this application is very useful, as for the discussion is very complete, if interested please download in the play store with the title CT SCAN TECHNIQUE:
The topics discussed include:
CT Scan Technique Head
-CT Brain Routin
- Acute Neurovasculer
-CTA Aneurysm
- Cerebral Veins and Sinuses
- Brain Perfusion
Vertebrae CT Scan Technique
Abdominal CT Scan Technique
- Focal Liver Lessions
- Diffuse liver disease
- Billiary Tract
- Retroperitoneal space
- CT Colon
- Gastrointestinal Tract
CT Scan Chest Technique
- CTA PE Chest
- Infectious Chages of the lung
- Pulmonary Embolism Imaging
- Thorachic
Musculoskeletal CT technique
CT scan Trauma case technique
CT Scan Guide Interference Techniques
CT Cardiac Technique
Basic position technique
Scan parameters
and CT Artefacts
Hopefully this application is very useful for handling radiology and radiology students

If interested just download it on the Google Play Store, or click here to go to the Play Store


COVID-19 IMAGING AND FINDINGS

Hello, Permission to share covid19 imaging, hopefully we will all be safe from covid19. let's take care of health, get enough rest, and consume healthy food.

Points learned include :
  1. Introduction
  2. Clinical Features
  3. PCR-test
  4. Chest CT
  5. Ground glass
  6. Crazy paving
  7. Vascular dilatation
  8. Traction Bronchiectasis
  9. Subpleural bands and Architectural distortion
  10. CT involvement score
  11. Initial CT-findings
  12. Changes over time
  13. CT Report
  14. Chest radiograph
  15. Possible role of CT
  16. Video cases of CT Chest

Introduction
Clinical Features
COVID-19 usually presents with fever (85%), cough (70%) and shortness of breath (43%), but abdominal and other symptoms are possible and the disease can be asymptomatic.
Overal mortality rate is 2.3% in some series of patients who had a positive test for COVID-19.
Since we do not know the number of people who were infected but not tested for the virus, the actual mortality rate of all the people that are infected is probably much lower.
Illness severity can vary from mild to critical.
Mild: no symptoms, mild caughing and fever.
Severe: dyspnea, hypoxia or > 50% lung involvement on imaging.
Critical: respiratory failure, shock, multi-organ failure.

PCR-test
The PCR-test is very specific, but has a lower sensitivity of 65-95%, which means that the test can be negative even when the patient is infected. Another problem is, that you have to wait for the test results, which can take more than 24 hours, while CT results are available right away.
Common laboratory findings in COVID-19 are a decreased lymphocyte count and an increased CRP and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level.

Chest CT
Ground glass
Ground glass (GGO) pattern is the most common finding in COVID-19 infections.
They are usually multifocal, bilateral and peripheral, but in the early phase of the disease the GGO may present as a unifocal lesion, most commonly located in the inferior lobe of the right lung.
CT-images of a young male, who had fever for ten days with progressive coughing and shortness of breath.
Saturation at admission was 66%.
The PCR test was positive for COVID-19.
There are widespread bilateral ground-glass opacities with a posterior predominance.

Crazy paving
Sometimes there are thickened interlobular and intralobular lines in combination with a ground glass pattern. This is called crazy paving. It is believed that this pattern is seen in a somewhat later stage.

Vascular dilatation
A typical finding in the area of ground glass is widening of the vessels (arrow).

Traction Bronchiectasis
Another common finding in the areas of ground glass is traction bronchiectasis (arrows).

Subpleural bands and Architectural distortion
CT involvement score
The severity of the lung involvement on the CT correlates with the severity of the disease.
Visual assessment
The severity on CT can be estimated by visual assessment.
This is the easiest way to score the severity.
The CT images show a 25% involvement by visual assessment.
Severity score
Another method is by scoring the percentages of each of the five lobes that is involved:
< 5% involvement
5%-25% involvement
26%-49% involvement
50%-75% involvement
> 75% involvement.
The total CT score is the sum of the individual lobar scores and can range from 0 (no involvement) to 25 (maximum involvement), when all the five lobes show more than 75% involvement.
Some say that the percentage of lung involvement can be calculated by multiplying the total score times 4.
This however is not true. Suppose that all lobes have a 10% involvement, then this would lead to an overall score of 10, which could lead to the impression that 40% of the lungs are involved.
Initial CT-findings
Initial CT-findings in COVID-19 cases include bilateral, multilobar groud glass opacification (GGO) with a peripheral or posterior distribution, mainly in the lower lobes nd less frequently in the middle lobe.
Consolidation superimposed on GGO as the initial imaging presentation is found in a smaller number of cases, mainly in the elderly population.
Septal thickening, bronchiectasis, pleural thickening, and subpleural involvement are some of the less common findings, mainly in the later stages of the dis- ease.
Pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, lymphadenopathy, cavitation, CT halo sign, and pneumothorax are some of the uncommon but possible findings seen with disease progression.
There is much overlap of the CT-pattern of COVID-19 with other viral pneumonias.



Images of a 59 year old male who had fever for one week with non-productive cough.
The PCR-test was negative.
Because of clinical suspicion a CT was performed which showed some areas of GGO and massive consolidation in the posterior parts of the lower lobes (arrow on sagittal reconstruction).
Two days later a sputum test was positive for COVID-19.

Changes over time
Advanced-phase disease is associated with a significantly increased frequency of:
GGO plus a reticular pattern (crazy pavin)
Vacuolar sign
Fibrotic streaks
Air bronchogram
Bronchus distortion
Subpleural line or a subpleural transparent line

Pleural effusion
This 59 year old female had a history of ten days of fever and five days of coughing.
The O2 saturation was 89 and her respiratory rate was 30/min (normal: 12-18).
There are widespread GGO's without consolidation. No architectural distortion.
This was reported as early phase COVID-19.
These images are of a 49 year old male with fever, cough and a low saturation.
The images show:
Bilateral areas of GGO.
The ground glass density is more pronounced
Fibrotic bands (arrows).
Dilated vessels in affected area (circle).
Based on the CT-findings COVID-19 infection was assumed to be highly likely - late phase.
This patient had fever for one week with some abdominal pain and diarrhoea.
On the day of admission she had a dry cough and complained of dizziness.
The O2-saturation was low.
The PCR-test was not known and a CT was performed for triage.
The images show:
Bilateral subpleural GGO's 
Consolidation in right lower lobe with traction bronchiectasis (green arrow).
Fibrous bands (yellow arrow).
Based on the CT-findings COVID-19 infection was assumed to be highly likely - late phase.


CT Report
In the tabel a checklist of CT findings to mention in the report.
In the first four days after the presentation of the complaints, the CT is not sensitive as initial test as 50% of patients may have a normal CT.
After these first four days, the CT has a very high sensitivity.


COVID-19 Standard Report CT click Next


New APP MRI PLANNING PATHOLOGY AND ANATOMY for android

permit share app MRI planning and Pathology Anatomy, you can download in play store, and this app free, the size only 25 mb. if you interes this app, please direct download  by link this, i hoop can help full for you mri technologist.



Best Lerning antomy of ct brain

This video nice info, for anatomy of ct brain, You will be smart with this video, because the name of the anatomy of CT brain is very complete
And you can download it on android with anatomy description:
CT Abdomen anatomy
CT Brain anatomy
CT Chest Anatomy
CT Spine Anatomy
CT Shoulder anatomy
CT Paranasal Anatomy
and many others, please visit this application, and it's free forever
very suitable for work in the radiology department
may be useful for you



This video there are in play store, free life time KLICK DIRECT HERE

Quiz nice APP, Emergency Head CT for android

Interpretation of Emergency Head CT
This application is very useful for emergency room doctors, for radiographers, and radiology doctors, this application discusses among others:
Acute stroke: (Ischaemic stroke and Haemorrhagic stroke)
Subdural haematoma (SDH)
Extradural haematoma
Subarachnoid haemorrhage
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
Contusions
Skull fractures
Meningitis
Raised intracranial pressure
Hydrocephalus
Abscesses
Arteriovenous malformation
Solitary lesions
Multiple lesions
Self-assessment section
Self Assessment – Answers

Klick here for free download to playstore







Probe Position Ilustration for APK Android user

Probe Position bdomen 
Probe Position Renal, including renal transplant 
Probe Position Abdominal aorta 
Probe Position Liver transplant 
Probe PositionTestes 
Probe Position Lower limb veins 
Probe Position Carotid Doppler 
Probe Position Female pelvis 
Probe Position Early pregnancy 
Probe Position Thyroid 
Probe Position Focused assessment with sonography in trauma
(FAST)
Probe Position Breast 
Probe Position Musculoskeletal 




LEARN TO READ A CHEST X RAY VERY EASY

This video tutorial from youtube about read chest x ray in 5 minutes
HOW TO READ CHEST X RAY, This video Very well done, succinct and high yield. I'd like to offer an alternative mnemonic to make sure you do not miss anything. With greater practice I'm sure this becomes pretty automatic, but as a student / junior doctor it's helpful for sure:
 A - Assessment of quality + airways
B - Bones
C - Cardiac silhouette+size
D - Diaphragms
E - Effusion
F - (lung) Fields
G - Great vessels
H - Hila + mediastinum
I - Impression, overall assessment It's the best chest X-ray illustration video I had ever seen.

HOW TO READ CHEST X RAY
CHEST X RAY INTERPRETATION

Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings

Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings :cranial nerves that traverse from the
brain or brainstem through the foramina of the skull base, which are involved in motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. (rsna.org)



Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encoun- tered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cra- nial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormali- ties, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed mag- netic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imag- ing protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging.

RADIOLOGY JOURNAL PDF "Appearance of Normal Cranial Nerves on Steady-State Free Precession MR Images"


Radiology Jounal PDF,  RSNA, 2009 radiographics.rsnajnls.org  
As radiologic imaging technology improves and more intricate details of the anatomy can be evaluated, images provide more precise diagnostic information and allow better localization of abnormalities. Forexample, standard T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences adequately depicted only the larger cranial nerves, whereas current steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of all 12 cranial nerves. SSFP sequences provide submillimetric spatial resolution and high contrast resolution between cerebrospinal fluid and solid structures, allowing the reconstruction of elegant multiplanar images that highlight the course of each nerve. These sequences have become a mainstay in the evaluation of the cerebellopontine angles and inner ear. Usually referred to by their trade names or acronyms (eg, constructive interference steady state, or CISS, and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition, or FIESTA), SSFP sequences allow precise differentiation between branches of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, accurate detection of small masses in the cerebellopontine angles and internal auditory canals, and detailed evaluation of endolymph and perilymph within the inner ear. To take full advantage of these imaging sequences, radiologists must be familiar with the appearances of similar anatomic details of all 12 cranial nerves on SSFP MR images.

Identify the expected course of each of the 12 cranial nerves.Differentiate cranial nerves from other curvilinear structures visible on high-resolution MR images.Describe pitfalls in the diagnosis of cranial nerve abnormalities. 



COVID-19 Standard Report CT

Chest radiograph
Courtesy Dr. Michael David Kuo.
The chest film is insensitive early in the disease.
Here a comparison of a chest radiograph and CT image.
The ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe on the CT (red arrows) are not visible on the chest radiograph, which was taken 1 hour prior to the CT-study
Chest-films can be useful in the follow-up of the disease.
These x-rays are of a patient with COVID-19.
On admission to the hospital the chest film was normal.
Four days later the patient is on mechanical ventilation and there are bilateral consolidations on the chest film.
Chest film of a 83 year old male with mitral insufficiency, pulmonary hypertension and atrial fibrillation with COVID-19 infection.
Ground-glass opacification and consolidation in right upper lobe and left lower lobe (arrows).

A series of chest films of a 72-year-old woman admitted with acute respiratory failure, fever (38ºC) and dyspnoea.
She was tachypneic (30bpm), with lymphopenia and low oxygen saturation (SpO2 85%).
Patient presented to the emergency department two days earlier with fever (up to 38.6ºC), dry cough, odynophagia and general malaise.
She was discharged from hospital because she did not present alarm criteria at that time.
The patient required mechanical ventilation and was admitted to intensive care.
During her stay in ICU, poor evolution to respiratory distress syndrome and to multi-organic failure.
The patient died 24 hours later.
Imaging findings:
At admission: Ill-defined bilateral alveolar consolidation with peripheral distribution.
4 hours later: Radiological worsening, with affectation of lower lobes. Endotracheal tube and central venous line were required.
24 hours: Bilateral alveolar consolidation.
48 hours: Radiological worsening. Bilateral alveolar consolidation with panlobar affectation.
72 hours: Bilateral alveolar consolidation with panlobar affectation, with typical radiological findings of ARDS. 24 hours later the patient passed away.
Possible role of CT
CT can play a role in:
Triage of patients:
- no COVID-19
- possible or most likely COVID-19
- severity of the disease
Prediction of worsening
Prediction of improvement
Problem solver
Triage
Some published clinical guidelines recommend chest CT for patients with suspected COVID-19.
The decision to use of CT for triage depends on many considerations:
a priori chance of COVID-19 infection.
CT availability, for instance can one CT be used as Corona-CT or is there a CT near the emergency room.
clinical suspicion in patients with negative PCR.

Video cases of CT Chest


Source video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3l6UKbZB9EY&feature=emb_logo


This is a 67 year old woman who was coughing for one week and now presented with shortness of breath. source video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kz8Q9eSypnA&feature=emb_logo


This is a CT-scan of a 53 year old woman at admission.
There are 2 areas with a halo sign, some areas of ground-glass and consolidations in the lower lobes.
Based on the CT-findings she was suspected of having COVID-19.
The PCR-test the next day was positive.
source video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sr-UmOyx9uU&feature=emb_logo


60 year old male with complaints of fatigue and coughing for one week.
Source video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k12dPqCeOQg&feature=emb_logo


Source content:

Imaging Profile of the COVID-19 Infection: Radiologic Findings and Literature Review
NG Ming-Yen, LEE1 Elaine YP, YANG Jin, YANG4 Fangfang, LI Xia, WANG4 Hongxia, LUI Macy Mei-sze, LO Christine Shing-Yen, LEUNG Barry, KHONG Pek-Lan, HUI Christopher Kim-Ming, YUEN Kwok-yung, KUO Michael David

Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia
Qun Li, M.Med., Xuhua Guan, Ph.D., Peng Wu, Ph.D., Xiaoye Wang, M.P.H., et al.

A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, MD * Shuofeng Yuan, PhD * Kin-Hang Kok, PhD * Kelvin Kai-Wang To, MD * Hin Chu, PhD * Jin Yang, MD et al.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Imaging Findings in 919 Patients Read More: https://www.ajronline.org/doi/full/10.2214/AJR.20.23034
AJR 2020; 215:1–7.
Sana Salehi, Aidin Abedi1, Sudheer Balakrishnan and Ali Gholamrezanezhad

Rapidly progressive ARDS secondary to COVID-19 infection - Eurorad case 16660
Edgar Lorente Martínez - Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain

CT Features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia in 62 Patients in Wuhan, China
AJR 2020; 214:1–8
Shuchang Zhou et al

https://radiologyassistant.nl/chest/lk-jg-1#chest-ct-subpleural-bands-and-architectural-distortion

Covid19 Imaging

Healthy greetings to radiology colleagues
May we all be detached from covid19, which is a worldwide victim
Please allow me to share the covid picture that I got from the web https://radiopaedia.org/.

Case 1:

Case 2
Case 3

Case 4


Case 5

Case 6
Hopefully the above description can be useful for radiographers, a temporary assessment after the examination is complete.



Abdominal Calcifications plain x ray

Abnormal structures that contain calcium
Calcium indicates pathology
● Pancreas
● Renal parenchymal tissue (see image 2)
● Blood vessels and vascular
aneurysms
● Gallbladder fibroids (leiomyoma) (see images3)
image2

image 3

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